Dramatic changes in the lifestyle of the tribe occurred as the tribe was forced to cede more of their lands to open the way for westward expansion. On the reservations in Nebraska and in Indian Territory, growing numbers of tribal members adopted white farming methods. The Otoe-Missouria tended individual fields, planting crops of wheat corn, oats, and potatoes. In a continuation of their traditional roles, women cared for the homes and were often responsible for the farming. Fences enclosed many of the farms and some of the farm families lived in substantial farmhouses surrounded by numerous outbuildings and carefully nurtured orchards. While the Otoe-Missouria viewed the land as communally owned, allotment eventually forced the tribal members into individual ownership of the land.