The Otoes and Missourias once owned land in Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska (map #1). In about 1800, the Otoes and Missourias lived in Nebraska between the Great Nemaha River and the Platt River. In 1816, Auguste Chouteau prepared "Notes" about where certain tribes lived (map #3).
The Otoes and Missourias before 1854 held their lands by Indian title. In that year they received land on the Big Blue River by treaty title. Because of pressure from white settlers, between 1830 and 1881 the Otoes and Missourias were convinced to give up more and more of their land to the U.S. government (map #2). With each treaty, their reservation got smaller.
Wave after wave of white men settled all around the Otoe reserve on the Big Blue River. Dr. Grant Foreman said that the white people, "made the lives of the Indians so wretched that they were anxious to escape to the Indian Territory." (Foreman, 19??). The Otoes and Missourias gradually came to the conclusion that it was best for them to remove from their reservation in Nebraska and Kansas to Indian Territory.
In 1881, the Otoes and Missourias in Nebraska and Kansas sold what was left of their reservation and moved to Indian Territory. The new reservation on Red Rock Creek (in current day Noble County, Oklahoma - maps ok1889, and ok1900) had been chosen by a delegation from the tribe and purchased with tribal funds.